Die Offiziellen sorgen beim Eishockey für den ordnungsgemäßen und regelkonformen Ablauf des Spiels beziehungsweise des Turniers. Dabei umfasst der. Sp, Tore, P. 1. Biel, 13, , 2. Zug, 12, , 3. Bern, 11, , 4. SCL Tigers, 12, , 5. Ambri-Piotta, 12, , 6. Genf-Servette, kicker präsentiert Berichte, Ergebnisse, Termine, Analysen, Live-Ticker zum Eishockey, Statistiken, Vereine, DEL, NHL, Tabelle, Pokal. Auch in den übrigen Ländern Europas wird inzwischen nahezu flächendeckend Eishockey gespielt, wenn auch auf unterschiedlichen Niveau. Wild Wings beurlauben Trainer Cortina. Die Bedeutung des Eishockey in der Sowjetunion nahm ab den er Jahren erheblich zu. Kurmann und Reiber kamen auch bei den Olympischen Spielen zum Einsatz. Die Zeitstrafen werden auf der Strafbank abgesessen. Weitere Angebote des Olympia-Verlags: Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Da bei jeder Spielunterbrechung die Uhr angehalten wird, dauert ein Eishockeyspiel jedoch brutto meist erheblich länger, etwa zwei bis zweieinhalb Stunden. Bekommt jeweils ein Spieler beider Mannschaften gleichzeitig eine 2-Minuten-Strafe, egalisieren sich die Strafen. Seit den ern wurde aber auch der Ligenunterbau der NHL stetig professionalisiert und ausgebaut. Startseite Classic Elitepartner login Pro 100 besten apps. Sie besteht im Moment aus zwölf Mannschaften. In Nordamerika kannten schon die glücksspielgesetz schleswig-holstein Ureinwohner Kanattas im fußballspiel deutschland em Greiss macht die voll - Draisaitl sticht Beste Spielothek in Ehrwald finden aus. Platzierte gegen den 7. Draisaitl beschenkt sich selbst. Eine spezielle Variante ist Unterwassereishockey. Ein anderes Spiel aus jener Zeit, welches dem heutigen Eishockey sehr ähnelt, ist bis heute unter dem Namen Bandy bekannt. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website riverbelle casino Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und lotto t online Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Dazu werden die zwölf Clubs in drei Vierergruppen eingeteilt, deren Zusammensetzung aufgrund der geografischen Lage erfolgt.
eishockex -Weltweit handelt es sich bei den meisten Eishockeyschiedsrichtern um Amateur-Schiedsrichter, die neben ihrer Tätigkeit auf dem Eis noch anderen Berufen nachgehen. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 1. Im Vereinigten Königreich und Irland wird ebenfalls Eishockey gespielt, allerdings lediglich als Randsportart, was sich vor allem in Zuschauerzahlen und Qualität bei internationalen Vergleichen abzeichnet, wobei es im Vereinigten Königreich teilweise parallel mehrere Profiligen gab und gibt. In der Schweiz verlief die Entwicklung des Eishockeys in Analogie zu den Nachbarländern, der nationale Verband wurde im Jahr gegründet. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 7. Ein Eishockeyspiel dauert netto 60 Minuten drei Drittel mit je 20 Minuten effektiver Spielzeit, dazwischen in den meisten Ligen jeweils 15 Minuten Pausenzeit.
Eishockex -Bekommt nun ein weiterer Spieler einer Mannschaft später innerhalb dieser zwei Minuten eine Strafe, wird die später aufgestellte Strafe aufgehoben, sobald ein Tor fällt. Fasel hört auf - Chance für Reindl? Die meisten dieser Aktionen finden abseits des Spiels, im Rücken des Schiedsrichter , statt. Populär ist Fraueneishockey auch im nördlichen Europa und in Russland. Einen geregelten Spielbetrieb gibt es lediglich in Mexiko , dessen Nationalmannschaft derzeit auch an offiziellen Turnieren des internationalen Eishockeyverbandes IIHF teilnimmt. Um Verletzungen vorzubeugen, ist eine spezielle Schutzausrüstung vorgeschrieben.
Eishockex VideoDas Eishockeywunder von Pyeongchang By then, several professional hockey leagues were operating in Canada with leagues in Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikinews. In Canada, the Canadian Hockey League is an umbrella organization comprising three major junior leagues: Ice hockey leos live a fast, fluid and exciting Beste Spielothek in Siedlung Osterbrock finden sport. The game is played in three minute periods with a variation of the ice hockey off-side rule. Inline hockey is played by two teams, consisting of four skaters and one goalie, on a dry rink divided into two halves by a center line, with one net at each end of the rink. University of Michigan Athletic Department. Players may be also eishockex personal extended penalties or game expulsions for misconduct in addition to the penalty or penalties their team must serve. After these six total shots, the team with the most goals is awarded the victory. Archived from the original PDF on October 21,
Ice hockey spread to Europe around the turn of the century, and the first Olympic Games to include ice hockey for men were the Antwerp Summer Games.
Unsurprisingly, Canada dominated the first tournaments. However, in , and until its dissolution, the Soviet Union took over and became the number one team.
Any team performing under the tutelage of the greatest ice hockey player the game has ever known understands that the pressure is on to win gold.
Such was the prospect facing the Canada ice hockey team at the Winter Olympics at Salt Lake City with Wayne Gretzky, or the Great One as he was affectionately known, their executive director.
In the final they met host nation USA Swedish star inspires ice hockey success 21 Feb Lillehammer Special anniversary a celebration for Swiss ice hockey women 20 Feb Lillehammer Russia takes bronze in men's ice hockey 20 Feb Lillehammer YOG spirit alive and well in impromptu ice hockey match 20 Feb Lillehammer Access all areas: Canada retain title as Swiss claim historic bronze 07 Mar Sochi Magic moments: A single minor penalty may be extended by a further two minutes for causing visible injury to the victimized player.
This is usually when blood is drawn during high sticking. Players may be also assessed personal extended penalties or game expulsions for misconduct in addition to the penalty or penalties their team must serve.
The team that has been given a penalty is said to be playing "short-handed" while the opposing team is on a " power play ". A two-minute minor penalty is often charged for lesser infractions such as " tripping ", " elbowing ", " roughing ", " high-sticking ", " delay of the game ", " too many players on the ice ", " boarding ", illegal equipment, " charging " leaping into an opponent or body-checking him after taking more than two strides , "holding", holding the stick grabbing an opponent's stick , "interference", " hooking ", " slashing ", "kneeing", "unsportsmanlike conduct" arguing a penalty call with referee, extremely vulgar or inappropriate verbal comments , "butt-ending" striking an opponent with the knob of the stick—a very rare penalty , "spearing", or " cross-checking ".
As of the — season, a minor penalty is also assessed for " diving ", where a player embellishes or simulates an offence.
More egregious fouls may be penalized by a four-minute double-minor penalty, particularly those that injure the victimized player.
These penalties end either when the time runs out or when the other team scores during the power play. In the case of a goal scored during the first two minutes of a double-minor, the penalty clock is set down to two minutes upon a score, effectively expiring the first minor penalty.
Five-minute major penalties are called for especially violent instances of most minor infractions that result in intentional injury to an opponent, or when a "minor" penalty results in visible injury such as bleeding , as well as for fighting.
Major penalties are always served in full; they do not terminate on a goal scored by the other team. Major penalties assessed for fighting are typically offsetting, meaning neither team is short-handed and the players exit the penalty box upon a stoppage of play following the expiration of their respective penalties.
The foul of "boarding" defined as "check[ing] an opponent in such a manner that causes the opponent to be thrown violently in the boards"  is penalized either by a minor or major penalty at the discretion of the referee, based on the violent state of the hit.
A minor or major penalty for boarding is often assessed when a player checks an opponent from behind and into the boards. Some varieties of penalties do not always require the offending team to play a man short.
Concurrent five-minute major penalties in the NHL usually result from fighting. In the case of two players being assessed five-minute fighting majors, both the players serve five minutes without their team incurring a loss of player both teams still have a full complement of players on the ice.
This differs with two players from opposing sides getting minor penalties, at the same time or at any intersecting moment, resulting from more common infractions.
In this case, both teams will have only four skating players not counting the goaltender until one or both penalties expire if one penalty expires before the other, the opposing team gets a power play for the remainder of the time ; this applies regardless of current pending penalties.
However, in the NHL, a team always has at least three skaters on the ice. Thus, ten-minute misconduct penalties are served in full by the penalized player, but his team may immediately substitute another player on the ice unless a minor or major penalty is assessed in conjunction with the misconduct a two-and-ten or five-and-ten.
In this case, the team designates another player to serve the minor or major; both players go to the penalty box, but only the designee may not be replaced, and he is released upon the expiration of the two or five minutes, at which point the ten-minute misconduct begins.
In addition, game misconducts are assessed for deliberate intent to inflict severe injury on an opponent at the officials' discretion , or for a major penalty for a stick infraction or repeated major penalties.
The offending player is ejected from the game and must immediately leave the playing surface he does not sit in the penalty box ; meanwhile, if an additional minor or major penalty is assessed, a designated player must serve out of that segment of the penalty in the box similar to the above-mentioned "two-and-ten".
In some rare cases, a player may receive up to nineteen minutes in penalties for one string of plays. This could involve receiving a four-minute double minor penalty, getting in a fight with an opposing player who retaliates, and then receiving a game misconduct after the fight.
In this case, the player is ejected and two teammates must serve the double-minor and major penalties.
A " penalty shot " is awarded to a player when the illegal actions of another player stop a clear scoring opportunity, most commonly when the player is on a " breakaway ".
A penalty shot allows the obstructed player to pick up the puck on the centre red-line and attempt to score on the goalie with no other players on the ice, to compensate for the earlier missed scoring opportunity.
A penalty shot is also awarded for a defender other than the goaltender covering the puck in the goal crease, a goaltender intentionally displacing his own goal posts during a breakaway to avoid a goal, a defender intentionally displacing his own goal posts when there is less than two minutes to play in regulation time or at any point during overtime, or a player or coach intentionally throwing a stick or other object at the puck or the puck carrier and the throwing action disrupts a shot or pass play.
Officials also stop play for puck movement violations, such as using one's hands to pass the puck in the offensive end, but no players are penalized for these offences.
The sole exceptions are deliberately falling on or gathering the puck to the body, carrying the puck in the hand, and shooting the puck out of play in one's defensive zone all penalized two minutes for delay of game.
In the NHL, a unique penalty applies to the goalies. The goalies now are forbidden to play the puck in the "corners" of the rink near their own net.
This will result in a two-minute penalty against the goalie's team. Only in the area in-front of the goal line and immediately behind the net marked by two red lines on either side of the net the goalie can play the puck.
An additional rule that has never been a penalty, but was an infraction in the NHL before recent rules changes, is the " two-line offside pass ".
Prior to the —06 NHL season, play was stopped when a pass from inside a team's defending zone crossed the centre line, with a face-off held in the defending zone of the offending team.
Players are now able to pass to teammates who are more than the blue and centre ice red line away. The NHL has taken steps to speed up the game of hockey and create a game of finesse, by retreating from the past when illegal hits, fights, and "clutching and grabbing" among players were commonplace.
Rules are now more strictly enforced, resulting in more penalties, which in turn provides more protection to the players and facilitates more goals being scored.
The governing body for United States' amateur hockey has implemented many new rules to reduce the number of stick-on-body occurrences, as well as other detrimental and illegal facets of the game "zero tolerance".
In men's hockey, but not in women's, a player may use his hip or shoulder to hit another player if the player has the puck or is the last to have touched it.
This use of the hip and shoulder is called " body checking ". Not all physical contact is legal—in particular, hits from behind, hits to the head and most types of forceful stick-on-body contact are illegal.
A delayed penalty call occurs when a penalty offence is committed by the team that does not have possession of the puck.
In this circumstance the team with possession of the puck is allowed to complete the play; that is, play continues until a goal is scored, a player on the opposing team gains control of the puck, or the team in possession commits an infraction or penalty of their own.
Because the team on which the penalty was called cannot control the puck without stopping play, it is impossible for them to score a goal.
In these cases, the team in possession of the puck can pull the goalie for an extra attacker without fear of being scored on.
However, it is possible for the controlling team to mishandle the puck into their own net. If a delayed penalty is signalled and the team in possession scores, the penalty is still assessed to the offending player, but not served.
In college games, the penalty is still enforced even if the team in possession scores. A typical game of hockey is governed by two to four officials on the ice, charged with enforcing the rules of the game.
There are typically two linesmen who are mainly responsible for calling "offside" and " icing " violations, breaking up fights, and conducting faceoffs,  and one or two referees ,  who call goals and all other penalties.
Linesmen can, however, report to the referee s that a penalty should be assessed against an offending player in some situations. On-ice officials are assisted by off-ice officials who act as goal judges, time keepers, and official scorers.
The most widespread system in use today is the "three-man system," that uses one referee and two linesmen.
Another less commonly used system is the two referee and one linesman system. This system is very close to the regular three-man system except for a few procedure changes.
With the first being the National Hockey League, a number of leagues have started to implement the "four-official system," where an additional referee is added to aid in the calling of penalties normally difficult to assess by one single referee.
Officials are selected by the league they work for. Amateur hockey leagues use guidelines established by national organizing bodies as a basis for choosing their officiating staffs.
In North America, the national organizing bodies Hockey Canada and USA Hockey approve officials according to their experience level as well as their ability to pass rules knowledge and skating ability tests.
Hockey Canada has officiating levels I through VI. Since men's ice hockey is a full contact sport, body checks are allowed so injuries are a common occurrence.
Protective equipment is mandatory and is enforced in all competitive situations. This includes a helmet cage worn if certain age or clear plastic visor can be worn , shoulder pads, elbow pads, mouth guard, protective gloves, heavily padded shorts also known as hockey pants or a girdle, athletic cup also known as a jock, for males; and jill, for females , shin pads, skates, and optionally a neck protector.
Goaltenders use different equipment. Goaltenders wear specialized goalie skates these skates are built more for movement side to side rather than forwards and backwards , a jock or jill, large leg pads there are size restrictions in certain leagues , blocking glove, catching glove, a chest protector, a goalie mask, and a large jersey.
Goaltenders' equipment has continually become larger and larger, leading to fewer goals in each game and many official rule changes. Hockey skates are optimized for physical acceleration, speed and manoeuvrability.
This includes rapid starts, stops, turns, and changes in skating direction. In addition, they must be rigid and tough to protect the skater's feet from contact with other skaters, sticks, pucks, the boards, and the ice itself.
Rigidity also improves the overall manoeuvrability of the skate. Hockey players usually adjust these parameters based on their skill level, position, and body type.
The hockey stick consists of a long, relatively wide, and slightly curved flat blade, attached to a shaft. The curve itself has a big impact on its performance.
A deep curve allows for lifting the puck easier while a shallow curve allows for easier backhand shots.
The flex of the stick also impacts the performance. Typically, a less flexible stick is meant for a stronger player since the player is looking for the right balanced flex that allows the stick to flex easily while still having a strong "whip-back" which sends the puck flying at high speeds.
It is quite distinct from sticks in other sports games and most suited to hitting and controlling the flat puck. Its unique shape contributed to the early development of the game.
Ice hockey is a full contact sport and carries a high risk of injury. Skate blades, hockey sticks, shoulders, hips, and hockey pucks all contribute.
The types of injuries associated with hockey include: Women's ice hockey players can have contact but are not allowed to body check. Compared to athletes who play other sports, ice hockey players are at higher risk of overuse injuries and injuries caused by early sports specialization by teenagers.
According to the Hughston Health Alert, "Lacerations to the head, scalp, and face are the most frequent types of injury [in hockey].
Most of these injuries are caused by player contact, falls and contact with a puck, high stick and occasionally, a skate blade. Due to the danger of delivering a check from behind, many leagues, including the NHL have made this a major and game misconduct penalty called "boarding".
Another type of check that accounts for many of the player-to-player contact concussions is a check to the head resulting in a misconduct penalty called "head contact".
A check to the head can be defined as delivering a hit while the receiving player's head is down and their waist is bent and the aggressor is targeting the opponent player's head.
The most dangerous result of a head injury in hockey can be classified as a concussion. Most concussions occur during player-to-player contact rather than when a player is checked into the boards.
Concussions that players suffer may go unreported because there is no obvious physical signs if a player is not knocked unconscious.
This can prove to be dangerous if a player decides to return to play without receiving proper medical attention. Studies show that, ice hockey causes Occurrences of death from these injuries are rare, but occur all too much in a variety of sports.
An important defensive tactic is checking—attempting to take the puck from an opponent or to remove the opponent from play. Stick checking , sweep checking , and poke checking are legal uses of the stick to obtain possession of the puck.
The neutral zone trap is designed to isolate the puck carrier in the neutral zone preventing him from entering the offensive zone.
Body checking is using one's shoulder or hip to strike an opponent who has the puck or who is the last to have touched it the last person to have touched the puck is still legally "in possession" of it, although a penalty is generally called if he is checked more than two seconds after his last touch.
Often the term checking is used to refer to body checking, with its true definition generally only propagated among fans of the game.
Offensive tactics include improving a team's position on the ice by advancing the puck out of one's zone towards the opponent's zone, progressively by gaining lines, first your own blue line, then the red line and finally the opponent's blue line.
NHL rules instated for the season redefined the offside rule to make the two-line pass legal; a player may pass the puck from behind his own blue line, past both that blue line and the centre red line, to a player on the near side of the opponents' blue line.
Offensive tactics are designed ultimately to score a goal by taking a shot. When a player purposely directs the puck towards the opponent's goal, he or she is said to "shoot" the puck.
A deflection is a shot that redirects a shot or a pass towards the goal from another player, by allowing the puck to strike the stick and carom towards the goal.
A one-timer is a shot struck directly off a pass, without receiving the pass and shooting in two separate actions.
Headmanning the puck , also known as breaking out , is the tactic of rapidly passing to the player farthest down the ice.
Loafing , also known as cherry-picking , is when a player, usually a forward, skates behind an attacking team, instead of playing defence, in an attempt to create an easy scoring chance.
A team that is losing by one or two goals in the last few minutes of play will often elect to pull the goalie ; that is, remove the goaltender and replace him or her with an extra attacker on the ice in the hope of gaining enough advantage to score a goal.
However, it is an act of desperation, as it sometimes leads to the opposing team extending their lead by scoring a goal in the empty net. One of the most important strategies for a team is their forecheck.
Forechecking is the act of attacking the opposition in their defensive zone. Forechecking is an important part of the dump and chase strategy i.
Each team will use their own unique system but the main ones are: The 2—1—2 is the most basic forecheck system where two forwards will go in deep and pressure the opposition's defencemen, the third forward stays high and the two defencemen stay at the blueline.
The 1—2—2 is a bit more conservative system where one forward pressures the puck carrier and the other two forwards cover the oppositions' wingers, with the two defencemen staying at the blueline.
The 1—4 is the most defensive forecheck system, referred to as the neutral zone trap, where one forward will apply pressure to the puck carrier around the oppositions' blueline and the other 4 players stand basically in a line by their blueline in hopes the opposition will skate into one of them.
Another strategy is the left wing lock , which has two forwards pressure the puck and the left wing and the two defencemen stay at the blueline.
There are many other little tactics used in the game of hockey. Cycling moves the puck along the boards in the offensive zone to create a scoring chance by making defenders tired or moving them out of position.
Pinching is when a defenceman pressures the opposition's winger in the offensive zone when they are breaking out, attempting to stop their attack and keep the puck in the offensive zone.
A saucer pass is a pass used when an opposition's stick or body is in the passing lane. It is the act of raising the puck over the obstruction and having it land on a teammate's stick.
A deke , short for "decoy," is a feint with the body or stick to fool a defender or the goalie. Many modern players, such as Pavel Datsyuk , Sidney Crosby and Patrick Kane , have picked up the skill of "dangling," which is fancier deking and requires more stick handling skills.
Although fighting is officially prohibited in the rules, it is not an uncommon occurrence at the professional level, and its prevalence has been both a target of criticism and a considerable draw for the sport.
At the professional level in North America fights are unofficially condoned. Enforcers and other players fight to demoralize the opposing players while exciting their own, as well as settling personal scores.
A fight will also break out if one of the team's skilled players gets hit hard or someone gets hit by what the team perceives as a dirty hit. The amateur game penalizes fisticuffs more harshly, as a player who receives a fighting major is also assessed at least a minute misconduct penalty NCAA and some Junior leagues or a game misconduct penalty and suspension high school and younger, as well as some casual adult leagues.
Ice hockey is one of the fastest growing women's sports in the world, with the number of participants increasing by percent from to The chief difference between women's and men's ice hockey is that body checking is prohibited in women's hockey.
After the Women's World Championship, body checking was eliminated in women's hockey. In current IIHF women's competition, body checking is either a minor or major penalty , decided at the referee's discretion.
In Canada, to some extent ringette has served as the female counterpart to ice hockey, in the sense that traditionally, boys have played hockey while girls have played ringette.
Women are known to have played the game in the 19th century. Several games were recorded in the s in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
The women of Lord Stanley's family were known to participate in the game of ice hockey on the outdoor ice rink at Rideau Hall , the residence of Canada's Governor-General.
The game developed at first without an organizing body. A tournament in between Montreal and Trois-Rivieres was billed as the first championship tournament.
Several tournaments, such as at the Banff Winter Carnival, were held in the early 20th century and numerous women's teams such as the Seattle Vamps and Vancouver Amazons existed.
Starting in the s, the game spread to universities. Today, the sport is played from youth through adult leagues, and in the universities of North America and internationally.
There are two major women's hockey leagues, the National Women's Hockey League with teams in the Northeastern United States which is a professional league and the Canadian Women's Hockey League with teams in Canada and the United States, which is semi-professional and is developing toward becoming a fully professional league.
The first women's world championship tournament, albeit unofficial, was held in in Toronto , Ontario, Canada. Women's ice hockey was added as a medal sport at the Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.
The United States won the gold, Canada won the silver and Finland won the bronze medal. With interest in women's ice hockey growing, between and the number of registered female players worldwide grew from , to , The CWHL was founded in and originally consisted of seven teams.
As of , there are six teams, although the teams themselves have changed. The league consists of five teams, though it had four teams for the league's first three seasons.
The NHL is by far the best attended and most popular ice hockey league in the world. The league's history began after Canada's National Hockey Association decided to disband in ; the result was the creation of the National Hockey League.
The league expanded to the United States beginning in In , the NHL doubled in size to 12 teams, undertaking one of the greatest expansions in professional sports history.
A few years later, in , a new 12 team league, the World Hockey Association WHA was formed and due to its ensuing rivalry with the NHL, it caused an escalation in players salaries.
This created a 21 team league. It comprises 30 teams from the United States and Canada, and will expand to 31 teams for the —19 season.
The American Collegiate Hockey Association is composed of college teams at the club level. In Canada, the Canadian Hockey League is an umbrella organization comprising three major junior leagues: Games played with curved sticks and a ball can be found in the histories of many cultures.
Most evidence of hockey-like games during the Middle Ages is found in legislation concerning sports and games. The Galway Statute enacted in Ireland in banned certain types of ball games, including games using "hooked" written "hockie", similar to "hooky" sticks.
By the 19th century, the various forms and divisions of historic games began to differentiate and coalesce into the individual sports defined today.
Organizations dedicated to the codification of rules and regulations began to form, and national and international bodies sprang up to manage domestic and international competition.
Bandy is played with a ball on a football pitch -sized ice arena bandy rink , typically outdoors, and with many rules similar to association football.
It is played professionally in Russia and Sweden and is considered a national sport in Russia. Bandy has its roots in England in the 19th century, was originally called "hockey on the ice",  and spread from England to other European countries around ; a similar Russian sport can also be seen as a predecessor and in Russia, bandy is sometimes called "Russian hockey".
There are national club championships in many countries and the top clubs in the world play in the Bandy World Cup every year.
The game is popular among both males and females in many parts of the world, particularly in Europe , Asia , Australia , New Zealand , South Africa , and Argentina.
In most countries, the game is played between single-sex sides, although they can be mixed-sex. Men's field hockey has been played at each Summer Olympic Games since except for and , while women's field hockey has been played at the Summer Olympic Games since Modern field hockey sticks are constructed of a composite of wood, glass fibre or carbon fibre sometimes both and are J-shaped, with a curved hook at the playing end, a flat surface on the playing side and a curved surface on the rear side.
All sticks are right-handed — left-handed sticks are not permitted. While field hockey in its current form appeared in midth century England , primarily in schools, it was not until the first half of the 19th century that it became firmly established.
The first club was created in at Blackheath in south-east London. Field hockey is the national sport of Pakistan. Ice hockey is played between two teams of skaters on a large flat area of ice, using a three-inch-diameter This puck is often frozen before high-level games to decrease the amount of bouncing and friction on the ice.
The game is played all over North America, Europe and to varying extents in many other countries around the world.
Ice hockey is the national sport of Latvia  and the national winter sport of Canada. Men's ice hockey has been played at the Winter Olympics since , and was in the Summer Olympics.
Women's ice hockey was added to the Winter Olympics in North America 's National Hockey League NHL is the strongest professional ice hockey league, drawing top ice hockey players from around the globe.
The NHL rules are slightly different from those used in Olympic ice hockey over many categories. International ice hockey rules were adopted from Canadian rules in the early s.
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